A Comprehensive Investigation toward the Indicative Proteins of Bladder Cancer in Urine: From Surveying Cell Secretomes to Verifying Urine Proteins

J Proteome Res. 2016 Jul 1;15(7):2164-77. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00106. Epub 2016 Jun 14.


Urine is an ideal material to study the cancer-related protein biomarkers in bladder, whereas exploration to these candidates is confronting technique challenges. Herein, we propose a comprehensive strategy of searching the urine proteins related with bladder cancer. The strategy consists of three core combinations, screening the biomarker candidates in the secreted proteins derived from the bladder cancer cell lines and verifying them in patient urines, defining the differential proteins through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS, and implementing quantitative proteomics of profiling and targeting analysis. With proteomic survey, a total of 700 proteins were found with their abundance of secreted proteins in cancer cell lines different from normal, while 87 proteins were identified in the urine samples. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantification was adapted in verifying the bladder cancer related proteins in individual urine samples, resulting in 10 differential urine proteins linked with the cancer. Of these candidates, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the combination of CO3 and LDHB was more sensitive as the cancer indicator than other groups. The discovery of the bladder cancer indicators through our strategy has paved an avenue to further biomarker validation.

Keywords: 2DE; MRM; biomarker; bladder cancer; iTRAQ; urine.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / urine*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Proteins / urine*
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • ROC Curve
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / urine


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplasm Proteins