A Fluorescent Polymer Probe with High Selectivity toward Vascular Endothelial Cells for and beyond Noninvasive Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Brain Vasculature

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016 Jul 13;8(27):17047-59. doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b02936. Epub 2016 Jun 30.


A chromophore-engineering strategy that relies on the introduction of a ground-state distortion in a quadrupolar chromophore was used to obtain a quasi-quadrupolar chromophore with red emission and large two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section in polar solvents. This molecule was functionalized with water-solubilizing polymer chains. It constitutes not only a remarkable contrast agent for intravital two-photon microscopy of the functional cerebral vasculature in a minimally invasive configuration but presents intriguing endothelial staining ability that makes it a valuable probe for premortem histological staining.

Keywords: TD-DFT; fluorescence; intravital microscopy; near infrared; star-shaped polymer; two-photon absorption.

MeSH terms

  • Brain / blood supply*
  • Endothelial Cells*
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Intravital Microscopy
  • Photons
  • Polymers


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Polymers