Anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Lavandula dentata L. and Lavandula stoechas L

J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug 22;190:142-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.063. Epub 2016 Jun 4.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Plants from genus Lavandula have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs in Mediterranean traditional medicine. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for complementary medicine, including herbal remedies, to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Aim of the study: To test the anti-inflammatory properties of Lavandula dentata and Lavandula stoechas extracts in two inflammatory experimental models: TNBS model of rat colitis and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, in order to mimic the intestinal conditions and the extra-intestinal manifestations of human IBD, respectively.

Material and methods: The extracts were characterized through the qualitative HPLC analysis. Then, they were assayed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed in BMDMs and CMT-93 epithelial cells with different concentrations of the extracts (ranging from 0.1 to 100µg/ml). The extracts were tested in vivo in the TNBS model of rat colitis (10 and 25mg/kg) and in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (10, 25 and 100mg/kg).

Results: L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts displayed immunomodulatory properties in vitro down-regulating different mediators of inflammation like cytokines and nitric oxide. They also showed anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS model of colitis as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase activity and increased total glutathione content, indicating a decrease of neutrophil infiltration and an improvement of the oxidative state. Besides, both extracts modulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and ameliorated the altered epithelial barrier function. They also displayed anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, since a significant reduction of the paw thickness was observed. This was associated with a down-regulation of the expression of different inducible enzymes like MMP-9, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, all involved in the maintenance of the inflammatory condition.

Conclusion: L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effect, confirming their potential use as herbal remedies in gastrointestinal disorders. In addition, their anti-inflammatory effect was also observed in other locations, thus suggesting a possible use for the treatment of the extra-intestinal symptoms of IBD.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Carrageenan-induced paw edema; Lavandula dentata L.; Lavandula stoechas L.; Polyphenols; TNBS colitis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Carrageenan
  • Cell Line
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Chromatography, Reverse-Phase
  • Colitis / chemically induced
  • Colitis / immunology
  • Colitis / metabolism
  • Colitis / prevention & control*
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Down-Regulation
  • Edema / chemically induced
  • Edema / immunology
  • Edema / metabolism
  • Edema / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Lavandula / chemistry*
  • Lavandula / classification
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Methanol / chemistry*
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Neutrophil Infiltration / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Components, Aerial / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Solvents / chemistry*
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
  • Carrageenan
  • Peroxidase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Mmp9 protein, mouse
  • Glutathione
  • Methanol