Pyrin inflammasome activation and RhoA signaling in the autoinflammatory diseases FMF and HIDS

Nat Immunol. 2016 Aug;17(8):914-21. doi: 10.1038/ni.3457. Epub 2016 Jun 6.


Mutations in the genes encoding pyrin and mevalonate kinase (MVK) cause distinct interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-mediated autoinflammatory diseases: familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS). Pyrin forms an inflammasome when mutant or in response to bacterial modification of the GTPase RhoA. We found that RhoA activated the serine-threonine kinases PKN1 and PKN2 that bind and phosphorylate pyrin. Phosphorylated pyrin bound to 14-3-3 proteins, regulatory proteins that in turn blocked the pyrin inflammasome. The binding of 14-3-3 and PKN proteins to FMF-associated mutant pyrin was substantially decreased, and the constitutive IL-1β release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with FMF or HIDS was attenuated by activation of PKN1 and PKN2. Defects in prenylation, seen in HIDS, led to RhoA inactivation and consequent pyrin inflammasome activation. These data suggest a previously unsuspected fundamental molecular connection between two seemingly distinct autoinflammatory disorders.

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Child
  • Familial Mediterranean Fever / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammasomes / metabolism*
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / genetics
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / metabolism*
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • Pyrin / genetics
  • Pyrin / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Young Adult
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Inflammasomes
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Pyrin
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
  • protein kinase N
  • mevalonate kinase
  • Protein Kinase C
  • RhoA protein, mouse
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein