Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Aug;101(8):3002-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-1607. Epub 2016 Jun 7.


Context: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism.

Objective: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls.

Design and setting: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.

Participants: Fifteen patients with T2D and 15 healthy matched controls with normal glucose tolerance.

Interventions: A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and three isocaloric and isovolemic liquid meals with low, medium, and high fat content, respectively.

Main outcome measures: Bile acid and FGF-19 concentrations.

Results: Postprandial total bile acid concentrations increased with increasing meal fat content (P < .05), peaked after 1-2 hours, and were higher in T2D patients vs controls (oral glucose tolerance test, low and medium fat meals, P < .05; high fat meal, P = .30). Differences reflected mainly unconjugated and glycine-conjugated forms of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and to a lesser extent cholic acid (CA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), whereas chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) concentrations were comparable in the two groups. FGF-19 concentrations tended to be lower in T2D patients vs controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation.

Conclusion: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19" phenotype with possible pathophysiological implications.

Trial registration: NCT01374594.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bile Acids and Salts / blood*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / blood*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meals
  • Middle Aged
  • Postprandial Period*


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • FGF19 protein, human
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors

Associated data