CXCL10 Is a Circulating Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure: a Pilot Study

J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2016 Aug;9(4):302-14. doi: 10.1007/s12265-016-9703-3. Epub 2016 Jun 6.


Chemokines are involved in the remodeling of the heart; however, their significance as biomarkers in heart failure is unknown. We observed that circulating CXCR3 receptor chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in a rat model of heart failure were increased 1 week after myocardial infarction. CXCL10 was also increased in both remote and infarcted regions of the heart and remained elevated at 16 weeks; CXCL9 was elevated in the remote area at 1 week. In humans, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10, MIP-1α, and CD40 ligand were the best indicators for differentiating healthy and heart failure subjects. Serum CXCL10 levels were increased in patients with symptomatic heart failure as indexed by NYHA classification II through IV. The presence of CXCL10, MIP-1α, and CD40 ligand appears to be dominant in patients with advanced heart failure. These findings identify a distinct profile of inflammatory mediators in heart failure patients.

Keywords: CXCR3; Chemokines; Immune response; Inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • CD40 Ligand / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokine CCL3 / blood
  • Chemokine CXCL10 / blood*
  • Chemokine CXCL9 / blood
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / blood*
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure / immunology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / diagnosis
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Infarction / blood*
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis
  • Myocardial Infarction / immunology
  • Pilot Projects
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptors, CXCR3 / blood
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Time Factors
  • Up-Regulation


  • Biomarkers
  • CCL3 protein, human
  • CXCL10 protein, human
  • CXCL9 protein, rat
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Chemokine CXCL9
  • Cxcl10 protein, rat
  • Cxcr3 protein, rat
  • Receptors, CXCR3
  • CD40 Ligand