Febrile Seizure Risk After Vaccination in Children 6 to 23 Months

Pediatrics. 2016 Jul;138(1):e20160320. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0320. Epub 2016 Jun 6.


Background and objective: An increased risk of febrile seizure (FS) was identified with concomitant administration of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13-valent during the 2010-2011 influenza season. Our objective was to determine whether concomitant administration of IIV3 with other vaccines affects the FS risk.

Methods: We examined the risk of FS 0 to 1 day postvaccination for all routinely recommended vaccines among children aged 6 through 23 months during a period encompassing 5 influenza seasons (2006-2007 through 2010-2011). We used a population-based self-controlled risk interval analysis with a control interval of 14 to 20 days postvaccination. We used multivariable regression to control for receipt of concomitant vaccines and test for interaction between vaccines.

Results: Only PCV 7-valent had an independent FS risk (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.91). IIV3 had no independent risk (IRR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.02), but risk was increased when IIV3 was given with either PCV (IRR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.13 to 10.85) or a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine (IRR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.52 to 8.07). The maximum estimated absolute excess risk due to concomitant administration of IIV3, PCV, and DTaP-containing vaccines compared with administration on separate days was 30 FS per 100 000 persons vaccinated.

Conclusions: The administration of IIV3 on the same day as either PCV or a DTaP-containing vaccine was associated with a greater risk of FS than when IIV3 was given on a separate day. The absolute risk of postvaccination FS with these vaccine combinations was small.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Risk Assessment
  • Seizures, Febrile / epidemiology*
  • Seizures, Febrile / etiology*
  • Vaccination / adverse effects*


  • Influenza Vaccines