Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 37 (3), 171-6

Discrepancy Between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status Among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data From a Single Private Hospital

Affiliations

Discrepancy Between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status Among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data From a Single Private Hospital

Youngju Kim et al. Korean J Fam Med.

Abstract

Background: Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers.

Results: In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69-10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36-4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.06), and low cotinine levels of <500 ng/mL (aOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.33-3.09), were also associated with discordance between SR and CV smoking status.

Conclusion: Omissions and false responses impede the accurate assessment of smoking status in health check-up participants. In order to improve accuracy, it is suggested that researcher pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates.

Keywords: Cotinine; Mass Screening; Self Report; Smoking; Surveys and Questionnaires.

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 PubMed Central articles

References

    1. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health. The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2014.
    1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Counseling and interventions to prevent tobacco use and tobacco-caused disease in adults and pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:551–555. - PubMed
    1. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea health statistics 2013: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1) Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013.
    1. Webb DA, Boyd NR, Messina D, Windsor RA. The discrepancy between self-reported smoking status and urine continine levels among women enrolled in prenatal care at four publicly funded clinical sites. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2003;9:322–325. - PubMed
    1. Jeong IS, Park NR, Ham J. Agreement between smoking self-report and urine cotinine among adolescents. J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37:127–132. - PubMed
Feedback