Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jun 6;13(6):567. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13060567.


The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

Keywords: JD-R Model; affectivity; job control; job demands; work engagement; workaholism.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Employment / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Personal Satisfaction*
  • Physicians / psychology*
  • Workload / psychology*