Activity of Extracts from Submerged Cultured Mycelium of Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), on the Immune System In Vitro

Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(1):49-57. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i1.60.


Extracts from submerged cultured mycelium of two strains of Flammulina velutipes, a popular culinary mushroom, were obtained by ultrasound and tested in vitro to determine their activity in innate immunity (monocytes/ macrophages). In addition, polyclonal antibodies against the extracts were produced. Both extracts have similar glycoproteins that contain mannose and glucose but have different glycoproteins with galactoseamine units. Two novel immunogenic glycoproteins with molecular weights of 32 and 25 kDa have been revealed. It is thought that these proteins are produced only by submerged cultured mycelium. Both extracts show immune-enhancing activity based on the significant modification of various parameters such as cytokine production, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / metabolism*
  • Biological Products / chemistry
  • Biological Products / isolation & purification
  • Biological Products / pharmacology*
  • Candida albicans / immunology
  • Flammulina / chemistry*
  • Fungal Proteins / immunology
  • Fungal Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Glycoproteins / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Immune System / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Male
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Mycelium / chemistry
  • Phagocytosis / drug effects
  • Rabbits
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antibodies
  • Biological Products
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species