Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

PLoS One. 2016 Jun 9;11(6):e0156332. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156332. eCollection 2016.


Background: Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance.

Results: The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98-3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87-3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45-2.56).

Conclusions: The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries.

MeSH terms

  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Caries / epidemiology*
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor / abnormalities
  • Incisor / pathology*
  • Male
  • Molar / abnormalities
  • Molar / pathology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prenatal Diagnosis*
  • Prevalence

Grants and funding

These authors have no support or funding to report.