Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

Psychol Assess. 2017 Mar;29(3):320-328. doi: 10.1037/pas0000336. Epub 2016 Jun 9.


Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anger
  • Anxiety / diagnosis*
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Depression / diagnosis*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stress, Psychological / diagnosis*
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Translations
  • United States