Pharmacokinetic Properties of Liraglutide as Adjunct to Insulin in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2016 Nov;55(11):1457-1463. doi: 10.1007/s40262-016-0413-4.


Background: The pharmacokinetic properties of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), have been established in healthy individuals and subjects with T2D. Liraglutide has been under investigation as adjunct treatment to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). This single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, clinical pharmacology trial is the first to analyze the pharmacokinetic properties of liraglutide as add-on to insulin in T1D.

Methods: Subjects (18-64 years; body mass index 20.0-28.0 kg/m2; glycated hemoglobin ≤9.5 %) were randomized 1:1:1 to 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg liraglutide/placebo. Each group underwent two 4-week treatment periods (liraglutide then placebo or placebo then liraglutide) separated by a 2- to 3-week washout. Both trial drugs were administered subcutaneously, once daily, as adjunct to insulin. A stepwise hypoglycemic clamp was performed at the end of each treatment period (data reported previously). Pharmacokinetic endpoints were derived from liraglutide concentration-time curves after the final dose and exposure was compared with data from previous trials in healthy volunteers and subjects with T2D.

Results: The pharmacokinetic properties of liraglutide in T1D were comparable with those observed in healthy volunteers and subjects with T2D. Area under the steady-state concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration data were consistent with dose proportionality of liraglutide. Comparison of dose-normalized liraglutide AUC suggested that exposure in T1D, when administered with insulin, is comparable with that observed in T2D.

Conclusions: Liraglutide, administered as adjunct to insulin in subjects with T1D, shows comparable pharmacokinetics to those in subjects with T2D. Identifier: NCT01536665.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Liraglutide / administration & dosage
  • Liraglutide / pharmacokinetics*
  • Liraglutide / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Liraglutide

Associated data