Effects of water stress on the composition and immunoreactive properties of gliadins from two wheat cultivars: Nawra and Tonacja

J Sci Food Agric. 2017 Mar;97(4):1134-1142. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7839. Epub 2016 Jul 13.


Background: Water shortage during wheat vegetation causes changes in the composition of gliadins in grains, which can lead to changes in their immunoreactive properties.

Results: The investigated wheat cultivars exposed to water stress accumulated significantly lower amounts (P < 0.05) of gliadins and glutenins in grains. The composition of proteins accumulated in grains was also modified. Water shortage results in a decreased share of αβ and γ fractions in total gliadins. Grains of wheat cultivated under water stress contain significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of ω-gliadins by 4.5% and 43.3% for Nawra and Tonacja cultivars, respectively. Water stress promotes an increase in the share of P and Q/E residues in gliadins. In protein samples R5 antibodies recognized increased amounts of gliadins matching the QQPFP sequence. Wheat proteins also reacted with IgE antibodies isolated from subjects allergic to gluten.

Conclusion: Cultivation of wheat under conditions of water stress results in the qualitative and quantitative changes of gliadins by increasing their immunoreactivity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: gliadin; immunoreactivity; water stress; wheat.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • Allergens / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antibodies / metabolism
  • Celiac Disease / metabolism
  • Dehydration
  • Dietary Proteins / analysis
  • Dietary Proteins / immunology*
  • Droughts*
  • Epitopes
  • Gliadin / immunology
  • Gliadin / metabolism*
  • Glutens / metabolism
  • Goats
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E / metabolism
  • Species Specificity
  • Stress, Physiological*
  • Triticum / classification
  • Triticum / immunology
  • Triticum / metabolism*
  • Triticum / physiology
  • Water / metabolism*
  • Wheat Hypersensitivity* / metabolism


  • Allergens
  • Antibodies
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Epitopes
  • Water
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Glutens
  • Gliadin
  • glutenin