Regulation of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase Activity in the Model Rhizosphere-Dwelling Bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 Jul 29;82(16):4955-64. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00813-16. Print 2016 Aug 15.


Soil-dwelling microbes solubilize mineral phosphates by secreting gluconic acid, which is produced from glucose by a periplasmic glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) that requires pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a redox coenzyme. While GDH-dependent phosphate solubilization has been observed in numerous bacteria, little is known concerning the mechanism by which this process is regulated. Here we use the model rhizosphere-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to explore GDH activity and PQQ synthesis, as well as gene expression of the GDH-encoding gene (gcd) and PQQ biosynthesis genes (pqq operon) while under different growth conditions. We also use reverse transcription-PCR to identify transcripts from the pqq operon to more accurately map the operon structure. GDH specific activity and PQQ levels vary according to growth condition, with the highest levels of both occurring when glucose is used as the sole carbon source and under conditions of low soluble phosphate. Under these conditions, however, PQQ levels limit in vitro phosphate solubilization. GDH specific activity data correlate well with gcd gene expression data, and the levels of expression of the pqqF and pqqB genes mirror the levels of PQQ synthesized, suggesting that one or both of these genes may serve to modulate PQQ levels according to the growth conditions. The pqq gene cluster (pqqFABCDEG) encodes at least two independent transcripts, and expression of the pqqF gene appears to be under the control of an independent promoter and terminator.

Importance: Plant growth promotion can be enhanced by soil- and rhizosphere-dwelling bacteria by a number of different methods. One method is by promoting nutrient acquisition from soil. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that plants obtain through soil, but in many cases it is locked up in forms that are not available for plant uptake. Bacteria such as the model bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 can solubilize insoluble soil phosphates by secreting gluconic acid. This chemical is produced from glucose by the activity of the bacterial enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which requires a coenzyme called PQQ. Here we have studied how the glucose dehydrogenase enzyme and the PQQ coenzyme are regulated according to differences in bacterial growth conditions. We determined that glucose dehydrogenase activity and PQQ production are optimal under conditions when the bacterium is grown with glucose as the sole carbon source and under conditions of low soluble phosphate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression*
  • Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase / genetics*
  • Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Operon
  • PQQ Cofactor / genetics*
  • PQQ Cofactor / metabolism
  • Pseudomonas putida / genetics*
  • Pseudomonas putida / metabolism
  • Rhizosphere


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • PQQ Cofactor
  • Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase