Enuresis Nocturna in children with asthma: prevalence and associated risk factors

Ital J Pediatr. 2016 Jun 10;42(1):59. doi: 10.1186/s13052-016-0266-3.

Abstract

Background: Enuresis Nocturna (EN) is a common disorders in childhood. Although many different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain EN, its etiology is multifactorial. Some reports demonstrate that there is an association between EN and allergic diseases. To study (1) the prevalence of EN in children with asthma, (2) to determine the possible risk factors for EN in asthmatic children.

Methods: Five hundreds and six children aged 6-14 years-old diagnosed with asthma and 380 age-matched non-asthmatic controls were enrolled into this cross-sectional case-control study. We studied an allergy panel that included skin prick tests with (8 inhalant allergens), total IgE, and blood eosinophil count for both groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the parents of children presenting EN. Factors associated with EN in children with asthma were analyzed using a logistic regression model.

Results: The prevalence of EN was significantly higher in children with asthma as compared to the controls: 132 (26 %), 43 (11.5 %) respectively (p = 0.001). Emergency visits frequency, and family history of enuresis were higher in the asthmatic children with EN than in asthmatic children without EN. According to the logistic regression analysis, positive pollen sensitization (p = 0.027, OR = 1.94), allergic rhinitis (p = 0.032, OR = 2.36), and high eosinophil count (p = 0.004, OR = 1.40) were independent risk factors for EN in children with asthma.

Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of EN in children with asthma was higher than in same age controls. Sensitization to pollens, allergic rhinitis and high blood eosinophil count associate to the EN in children with asthma.

Keywords: Asthma; Autonomic dysfunction; Children; Enuresis; Eosinophilia; Pollen allergy; Risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Distribution
  • Asthma / diagnosis
  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Asthma / immunology*
  • Asthma / therapy
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / diagnosis
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / epidemiology*
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / immunology*
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / therapy
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution
  • Skin Tests / methods