Revised phylogeny of Bacteroidetes and proposal of sixteen new taxa and two new combinations including Rhodothermaeota phyl. nov

Syst Appl Microbiol. 2016 Jul;39(5):281-96. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2016.04.004. Epub 2016 May 12.


Members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, which was originally defined as a monophyletic branch encompassing the genera Cytophaga, Flavobacterium and Bacteroides (CFB), are widely studied due to their importance in environmental and gut microbiology. As a consequence, the number of species names with standing in nomenclature has doubled in the past five years. In this study, a revision of an earlier phylogeny of Bacteroidetes has been performed using the 16S rRNA gene as a backbone in combination with the 23S rRNA gene, as well as multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 29 orthologous protein sequences, and indels in the sequences of the beta subunit of the F-type ATPase and the alanyl-tRNA synthetase. In addition, taxonomic data for Bacteroidetes has been updated by considering the orphan species list, signature nucleotides in the 16S rRNA sequence, the list of outlier species, and discrepancies with the current taxonomy at the genus rank level. As a result, seven new taxa are proposed within Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagia classis nov., Chitinophagales ord. nov., Crocinitomicaceae fam. nov., Odoribacteraceae fam. nov., Hymenobacteraceae fam. nov., Thermonemataceae fam. nov. and Persicobacteraceae fam. nov.), as well as one new phylum Rhodothermaeota phyl. nov. that contains two classes, two orders, four families and a new genus with two new combinations.

Keywords: 16S rRNA; 23S rRNA; ATP synthetase; Bacteroidetes; Indels; MLSA; Rhodothermaeota; Signatures.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Alanine-tRNA Ligase / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacteroidetes / classification*
  • Bacteroidetes / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics*
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 23S / genetics*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 23S
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • Alanine-tRNA Ligase