Coffee intake and the incident risk of cognitive disorders: A dose-response meta-analysis of nine prospective cohort studies

Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun;36(3):730-736. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.05.015. Epub 2016 May 30.


Background & aims: Previous epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent conclusions on the impact of coffee consumption in the developing of cognitive disorders. However, no previous meta-analysis has pooled the evidence from the prospective cohort studies to assess the influence of coffee drinking and its potential dose-response patterns on the risk of developing cognitive disorders specifically.

Methods: Two databases (PubMed and Embase) were searched for evidence of cohort studies from inception to February 2016. We used a generic inverse-variance method with a random-effects model to pool the fully adjusted relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the dose-response analyses, a generalized least-squares trend estimation model was applied to computing the study-specific slopes.

Results: Nine prospective cohort studies involving 34,282 participants were included in our study. The duration of follow-up years ranged from 1.3 to 28. Compared with <1 cup, daily drinking of 1-2 cups of coffee was inversely linked with the occurrence of cognitive disorders (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, dementia, cognitive decline, and cognitive impairment), and the pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.82 (0.71, 0.94) with evidence of non-significant heterogeneity (I2 = 25%). Non-significant differences were presented for the association between coffee consumption (>3 vs. <1 cup/d) and incident cognitive disorders. The dose-response analysis showed a "J-shaped" curve relationship of the risk of developing cognitive disorders with coffee consumption.

Conclusions: A "J-shaped" association was presented between coffee intake and incident cognitive disorders, with the lowest risk of incident cognitive disorders at a daily consumption level of 1-2 cups of coffee.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Coffee intake; Cognitive disorders; Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coffee*
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Dementia / epidemiology
  • Dementia / prevention & control
  • Diet
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Risk Factors


  • Coffee