Innate immune evasion strategies of DNA and RNA viruses

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2016 Aug;32:113-119. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2016.05.015. Epub 2016 Jun 8.


Upon infection, both DNA and RNA viruses can be sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the cytoplasm or the nucleus to activate antiviral innate immunity. Sensing of viral products leads to the activation of a signaling cascade that ultimately results in transcriptional activation of type I and III interferons, as well as other antiviral genes that together mediate viral clearance and inhibit viral spread. Therefore, in order for viruses to replicate and spread efficiently, they must inhibit the host signaling pathways that induce the innate antiviral immune response. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses evade PRR detection, intermediate signaling molecule activation, transcription factor activation, and the actions of antiviral proteins.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • DEAD Box Protein 58 / immunology
  • DNA Viruses / immunology*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune Evasion / physiology*
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Interferon Type I / immunology*
  • RNA Viruses / immunology*
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology


  • Interferon Type I
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • DDX58 protein, human
  • DEAD Box Protein 58