During 1977 and 1978, we operated on 34 patients with chronic anterior tibial compartment syndrome. Surgery consisted of subcutaneous fasciotomy of the anterior crural compartment under local anesthesia. Twenty-three patients were operated on bilaterally. The mean follow-up was 10 years. One patient was lost to follow-up, leaving a total of 56 legs for assessment. The long-term result was excellent in 31 legs, good in 10, fair in 11, and poor in 4. There was one recurrence. This was relieved by refasciotomy.