Objective: This study investigated the frequency, clinical features, therapeutic options, and results of aortoenteric fistulas (AEFs) developing after endovascular abdominal aortic repair (EVAR).
Methods: Eight Italian centers with an EVAR program participated in this retrospective multicenter study and collected data on AEFs that developed after a previous EVAR.
Results: A total of 3932 patients underwent EVAR between 1997 and 2013 at the participating centers. During the same period, 32 patients presented with an AEF during EVAR follow-up, 21 with original EVAR performed for atherosclerotic aneurysmal disease (ATS group) and 11 with the original EVAR performed for a postsurgical pseudoaneurysm (PSA group). The incidence of AEF development after EVAR was 0.46% in the ATS group and 3.9% in the PSA group. Anastomotic PSA as the indication to EVAR (P < .0001) and urgent/emergency EVAR (P = .01) were significantly associated with AEF development. Median time between EVAR and the AEF diagnosis was 32 months (interquartile range, 11-75 months) for the ATS group and 14 months (interquartile range, 10.5-21.5 months) for the PSA group. Among five AEF patients treated conservatively, two (40%) died, at 7 and 15 months, and the remaining three were alive at a median follow-up of 12 months. The AEF was treated surgically in 27 patients, including aortic stent graft explantation in all cases, in situ aortic reconstruction in 14 (52%), and extra-anatomic bypass in 13 (48%). Perioperative mortality was 37% (10 of 27). No additional aortic-related death was recorded in operated-on patients at a median follow-up of 28 months.
Conclusions: Late AEFs rarely occur during EVAR follow-up, but the risk is significantly increased when EVAR is performed for PSA after previous aortic surgery and EVAR is performed as an emergency. Conservative and surgical treatment of post-EVAR AEF are both associated with high mortality. However, beyond the perioperative period, surgical correction of AEFs appears to be durable at midterm follow-up.
Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.