Palmitoylation in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases

Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep:111:133-151. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.06.008. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Abstract

Posttranslational modifications of proteins are important regulatory processes endowing the proteins functional complexity. Over the last decade, numerous studies have shed light on the roles of palmitoylation, one of the most common lipid modifications, in various aspects of neuronal functions. Major players regulating palmitoylation are the enzymes that mediate palmitoylation and depalmitoylation which are palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) and protein thioesterases, respectively. In this review, we will provide and discuss current understandings on palmitoyation/depalmitoylation control mediated by PATs and/or protein thioesterases for neuronal functions in general and also for Alzheimer's disease in particular, and other neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease, schizophrenia and intellectual disability.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative diseases; palmitoyl acyltransferases; palmitoylation; posttranslational modifications; protein thioesterases.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acyltransferases / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism*
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Alzheimer Disease / physiopathology
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology
  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Huntington Disease / metabolism
  • Huntington Disease / pathology
  • Huntington Disease / physiopathology
  • Huntington Disease / psychology
  • Intellectual Disability / metabolism
  • Intellectual Disability / pathology
  • Intellectual Disability / physiopathology
  • Intellectual Disability / psychology
  • Lipoylation*
  • Nerve Degeneration*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Schizophrenia / metabolism
  • Schizophrenia / pathology
  • Schizophrenia / physiopathology
  • Schizophrenic Psychology
  • Thiolester Hydrolases / metabolism

Substances

  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Acyltransferases
  • Thiolester Hydrolases