To determine associations with other cancers, 400 consecutive uveal melanoma patients examined at Wills Eye Hospital between 1984 and 1985 were surveyed regarding personal and family history of cancer. Responses were received from 333 (83%). Sixty patients reported 43 nonbasal cell second primary cancers, which were confirmed pathologically or by physician records. The overall prevalence of nonbasal cell cancers diagnosed in uveal melanoma patients by December 1985 was over two times greater than the expected prevalence, based on the Connecticut Tumor Registry data for an age- and sex-matched population. Gynecologic cancers tended to be more common in uveal melanoma female patients than in the comparison population. Although the observed prevalence of cutaneous melanoma was not significantly greater than expected, three cases with both primary cutaneous and uveal melanoma were reported. Family histories of cutaneous melanoma were confirmed in 14 patients, and uveal melanoma in two patients. Data suggested that the overall cancer prevalence in uveal melanoma patients may be increased, that hormonal factors may play a role in the genesis of this malignancy, and that there may be a link between cutaneous and uveal melanoma.