Measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10): Findings from HCHS/SOL

Psychol Assess. 2017 Apr;29(4):372-381. doi: 10.1037/pas0000330. Epub 2016 Jun 13.


The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used self-report measure of depression symptomatology. This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the CES-D 10 in a diverse cohort of Hispanics/Latinos from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The sample consisted of 16,415 Hispanic/Latino adults recruited from 4 field centers (Miami, FL; San Diego, CA; Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL). Participants completed interview administered measures in English or Spanish. The CES-D 10 was examined for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and measurement invariance. The total score for the CES-D 10 displayed acceptable internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha's = .80-.86) and test-retest reliability (r values = .41-.70) across the total sample, language group and ethnic background group. The total CES-D 10 scores correlated in a theoretically consistent manner with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, r = .72, p < .001, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression measure, r = .80, p < .001, the Short Form-12's Mental Component Summary, r = -.65, p < .001, and Physical Component Summary score, r = -.25, p < .001. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 1-factor model fit the CES-D 10 data well (CFI = .986, RMSEA = .047) after correlating 1 pair of item residual variances. Multiple group analyses showed the 1-factor structure to be invariant across English and Spanish speaking responders and partially invariant across Hispanic/Latino background groups. The total score of the CES-D 10 can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in English and Spanish. (PsycINFO Database Record

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Depression / diagnosis*
  • Depression / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Psychometrics / instrumentation*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • United States / ethnology
  • Young Adult