We used a fluorometric method to examine amyloid fibrils, in vitro. These fibrils in the case of both murine senile and secondary amyloidosis were purified to apparent homogeneity from the water-suspended fraction of the liver of senescence-accelerated mouse, using sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and then the following assays were performed. In the absence of amyloid fibrils, thioflavine T fluoresced faintly at the excitation and emission maxima of 350 and 438 nm, respectively. In the presence of amyloid fibrils, thioflavine T fluoresced brightly at the excitation and emission maxima of 450 and 482 nm, respectively, and the fluorescence change was linear from 0 to 2.0 micrograms/ml amyloid fibrils. This fluorescence was maximal around pH 9.0. Fluorescence intensity in the presence of a constant amount of amyloid fibrils reached a plateau with increase in the thioflavine T concentration. Normal high density lipoproteins which contain apo A-II, the precursor of amyloid fibrils in murine senile amyloidosis, and acute phase high density lipoproteins which contain serum amyloid protein A, the precursor of amyloid fibrils in secondary amyloidosis, showed little fluorescence. The fluorescence was considerably diminished when structure of the amyloid fibrils was disrupted by guanidine-HCl treatment. This method will be useful for the determination of amyloid fibrils in vitro.