Fully Automated Data-Driven Respiratory Signal Extraction From SPECT Images Using Laplacian Eigenmaps

IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2016 Nov;35(11):2425-2435. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2016.2576899. Epub 2016 Jun 7.


We propose a data-driven method for extracting a respiratory surrogate signal from SPECT list-mode data. The approach is based on dimensionality reduction with Laplacian Eigenmaps. By setting a scale parameter adaptively and adding a series of post-processing steps to correct polarity and normalization between projections, we enable fully-automatic operation and deliver a respiratory surrogate signal for the entire SPECT acquisition. We validated the method using 67 patient scans from three acquisition types (myocardial perfusion, liver shunt diagnostic, lung inhalation/perfusion) and an Anzai pressure belt as a gold standard. The proposed method achieved a mean correlation against the Anzai of 0.81 ± 0.17 (median 0.89). In a subsequent analysis, we characterize the performance of the method with respect to count rates and describe a predictor for identifying scans with insufficient statistics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large validation of a data-driven respiratory signal extraction method published thus far for SPECT, and our results compare well with those reported in the literature for such techniques applied to other modalities such as MR and PET.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Area Under Curve
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Respiration
  • Respiratory Rate / physiology*
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted*
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods*