Monitoring for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Impact Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men-United States, 2012-2014

J Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 1;214(5):689-96. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw232. Epub 2016 Jun 13.


Background: Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; vaccination is recommended for US males, including MSM through age 26 years. We assessed evidence of HPV among vaccine-eligible MSM and transgender women to monitor vaccine impact.

Methods: During 2012-2014, MSM aged 18-26 years at select clinics completed a computer-assisted self-interview regarding sexual behavior, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and vaccinations. Self-collected anal swab and oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction; serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 types) by a multiplexed virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin G direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Among 922 vaccine-eligible participants, the mean age was 23 years, and the mean number of lifetime sex partners was 37. Among 834 without HIV infection, any anal HPV was detected in 69.4% and any oral HPV in 8.4%, yet only 8.5% had evidence of exposure to all quadrivalent vaccine types. In multivariate analysis, HPV prevalence varied significantly (P < .05) by HIV status, sexual orientation, and lifetime number of sex partners, but not by race/ethnicity.

Discussions: Most young MSM lacked evidence of current or past infection with all vaccine-type HPV types, suggesting that they could benefit from vaccination. The impact of vaccination among MSM may be assessed by monitoring HPV prevalence, including in self-collected specimens.

Keywords: epidemiological monitoring; homosexuality, male; papillomavirus infections; papillomavirus vaccines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anal Canal / virology
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mouth Mucosa / virology
  • Papillomaviridae / classification
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines