The brain constantly changes to store memories and adapt to new conditions. One type of plasticity that has gained increasing interest during the last years is the generation of new cells. The generation of both new neurons and glial cells contributes to neural plasticity and to some neural repair. There are substantial differences between mammalian species with regard to the extent of and mechanisms behind cell exchange in neural plasticity. Both neurogenesis and gliogenesis have several specific features in humans, which may contribute to the unique plasticity of the human brain.
Keywords: adult neurogenesis; gliogenesis; myelination; neuroblast; oligodendrocyte.