Liver fibrosis and fatty liver in Asian HIV-infected patients

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Aug;44(4):411-21. doi: 10.1111/apt.13702. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Abstract

Background: Little is known about the importance of liver fibrosis and fatty liver in HIV-monoinfected individuals without hepatitis virus co-infection, particularly among the Asian population.

Aim: To evaluate prevalence and risk factors for liver fibrosis and fatty liver in Asian HIV-monoinfected individuals.

Methods: Eighty asymptomatic HIV-monoinfected individuals (tested negative for HBV/HCV) were compared with 160 matched HIV-uninfected healthy controls. Transient elastography and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) were performed to measure liver stiffness and hepatic steatosis respectively. Blood samples were analysed for metabolic profiles and markers of steatohepatitis (e.g. cytokeratin-18).

Results: All HIV-infected individuals (mean ± s.d. age 54 ± 11 years, male 93%, Chinese 94%; diagnosis median duration 8 (IQR 4-13 years) were stable on anti-retrovirals (PI-based 58.7%, NNRTI-based 25.0% integrase-inhibitors 16.3%); diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome were common. Fatty liver disease was detected in 28.7%. There was significantly higher degree of liver stiffness [4.9 (IQR 4.1-6.2) kPa vs. 4.2 (IQR 3.6-5.0) kPa, P < 0.001], and greater proportions developed significant fibrosis (7.0 kPa, 14.3% vs. 3.1%, P = 0.001) and cirrhosis (10.3 kPa, 5.2% vs. 0.6%, P = 0.040) compared with controls. HIV infection was an independent risk factor for significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.29-12.41, P = 0.016). HIV-infected individuals with fatty liver had excessive liver stiffness and fibrosis. Two cases of asymptomatic hepatocellular carcinoma were detected.

Conclusions: HIV-monoinfected patients are at risk for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. HIV-related mechanisms and fatty liver disease may play important roles. Screening and intervention to prevent severe outcomes should be considered.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnostic imaging
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Elasticity Imaging Techniques
  • Fatty Liver / blood
  • Fatty Liver / diagnostic imaging
  • Fatty Liver / etiology*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / diagnostic imaging
  • Hong Kong / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Keratin-18 / blood
  • Liver Cirrhosis / blood
  • Liver Cirrhosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Cirrhosis / etiology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / blood
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • KRT18 protein, human
  • Keratin-18