Rotavirus Strain Trends During the Postlicensure Vaccine Era: United States, 2008-2013

J Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 1;214(5):732-8. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw233. Epub 2016 Jun 14.


Background: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a significant cause of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) has conducted active surveillance for RVA at pediatric hospitals and emergency departments at 3-7 geographically diverse sites in the United States since 2006.

Methods: Over 6 consecutive years, from 2008 to 2013, 1523 samples from NVSN sites that were tested positive by a Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for genotyping.

Results: In the 2009, 2010, and 2011 seasons, genotype G3P[8] was the predominant genotype throughout the network, with a 46%-84% prevalence. In the 2012 season, G12P[8] replaced G3P[8] as the most common genotype, with a 70% prevalence, and this trend persisted in 2013 (68.0% prevalence). Vaccine (RotaTeq; Rotarix) strains were detected in 0.6%-3.4% of genotyped samples each season. Uncommon and unusual strains (eg, G8P[4], G3P[24], G2P[8], G3P[4], G3P[6], G24P[14], G4P[6], and G9P[4]) were detected sporadically over the study period. Year, study site, and race were found to be significant predictors of genotype.

Conclusions: Continued active surveillance is needed to monitor RVA genotypes in the United States and to detect potential changes since vaccine licensure.

Keywords: genotype; prevalence; rotavirus; surveillance; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Female
  • Genotype*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Rotavirus / classification*
  • Rotavirus / genetics
  • Rotavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Rotavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Rotavirus Infections / virology*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Rotavirus Vaccines