High risk of respiratory diseases in children in the fire period in Western Amazon

Rev Saude Publica. 2016 Jun 10;50:29. doi: 10.1590/S1518-8787.2016050005667.

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the toxicological risk of exposure to ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) among schoolchildren..

Methods: Toxicological risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of exposure to O3 and PM2.5 from biomass burning among schoolchildren aged six to 14 years, residents of Rio Branco, Acre, Southern Amazon, Brazil. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the potential intake dose of both pollutants.

Results: During the slash-and-burn periods, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations reached 119.4 µg/m3 and 51.1 µg/m3, respectively. The schoolchildren incorporated medium potential doses regarding exposure to O3 (2.83 μg/kg.day, 95%CI 2.72-2.94). For exposure to PM2.5, we did not find toxicological risk (0.93 μg/kg.day, 95%CI 0.86-0.99). The toxicological risk for exposure to O3 was greater than 1 for all children (QR = 2.75; 95%CI 2.64-2.86).

Conclusions: Schoolchildren were exposed to high doses of O3 during the dry season of the region. This posed a toxicological risk, especially to those who had previous diseases.

OBJETIVO: Analisar os riscos toxicológicos da exposição ao ozônio (O3) e a partículas finas (PM2,5) em escolares.

MÉTODOS: Avaliação do risco toxicológico foi aplicada para verificar o risco de exposição ao O3 e PM2,5 a partir da queima de biomassa, em escolares de seis a 14 anos, moradores de Rio Branco, Acre, no sul da Amazônia. Nós usamos a simulação de Monte Carlo para estimar a dose potencial de ingresso do poluente.

RESULTADOS: As concentrações de O3 e PM2,5 atingiram 119,4 mg/m3 e 51,1 mg/m3, respectivamente, durante os períodos de queimadas. Os escolares incorporaram doses potenciais médias relativas à exposição ao O3 (2,83 μg/kg.dia, IC95% 2,72–2,94). Para a exposição a PM2,5, não encontramos risco toxicológico (0,93 μg/kg.dia; IC95% 0,86–0,99). O O3 apresentou risco toxicológico maior que 1 para todas as crianças (Quociente de Risco [QR] = 2,75; IC95% 2,64–2,86).

CONCLUSÕES: Escolares são expostos a altas doses de O3 durante a estação seca. Isso representa risco toxicológico, principalmente para aqueles com agravos à saúde pregressa.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollutants / toxicity
  • Air Pollution / adverse effects
  • Air Pollution / analysis
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Fires*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ozone / analysis*
  • Ozone / toxicity
  • Particulate Matter / analysis*
  • Particulate Matter / toxicity
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / chemically induced
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Risk Assessment

Substances

  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter
  • Ozone