GPS-Lipid: a robust tool for the prediction of multiple lipid modification sites

Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 16:6:28249. doi: 10.1038/srep28249.


As one of the most common post-translational modifications in eukaryotic cells, lipid modification is an important mechanism for the regulation of variety aspects of protein function. Over the last decades, three classes of lipid modifications have been increasingly studied. The co-regulation of these different lipid modifications is beginning to be noticed. However, due to the lack of integrated bioinformatics resources, the studies of co-regulatory mechanisms are still very limited. In this work, we developed a tool called GPS-Lipid for the prediction of four classes of lipid modifications by integrating the Particle Swarm Optimization with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO) algorithm. GPS-Lipid was proven to be evidently superior to other similar tools. To facilitate the research of lipid modification, we hosted a publicly available web server at with not only the implementation of GPS-Lipid, but also an integrative database and visualization tool. We performed a systematic analysis of the co-regulatory mechanism between different lipid modifications with GPS-Lipid. The results demonstrated that the proximal dual-lipid modifications among palmitoylation, myristoylation and prenylation are key mechanism for regulating various protein functions. In conclusion, GPS-lipid is expected to serve as useful resource for the research on lipid modifications, especially on their co-regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Animals
  • Databases, Factual
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Proteins / metabolism*


  • Proteins