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, 7 (2), 170-5

Comparative Assessment of the Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in Subjects With and Without Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: A Case-Control Study

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Comparative Assessment of the Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in Subjects With and Without Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: A Case-Control Study

S G Ramesh Kumar et al. Contemp Clin Dent.

Abstract

Background: Immune mechanism shares a common pathway both for systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases. Scientific exploration of literature revealed limited studies on the association between systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases in India.

Aim: The aim of the study is to find whether the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases in an individual is a risk factor for the development of periodontal disease.

Settings and design: This was a hospital-based case-control study.

Materials and methods: A sample of 253 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the Rheumatology Department of Government General Hospital, Chennai-3, and 262 patients without systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the outpatient department of the Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai-3, constituted the case and control groups, respectively. Age, gender, and oral hygiene status matching was done. Oral hygiene status was assessed using oral hygiene index (OHI) and periodontal status was assessed using community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) index.

Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc, 2006, Chicago).

Results: Results showed 99.2% and 73.9% prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively, in the case group as compared to 85.5% and 14.9%, respectively, in the control group. There is no linear relationship between OHI scores and prevalence of periodontitis (CPI and LOA scores) in the case group. Patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases showed more prevalence of periodontal diseases irrespective of oral hygiene scores.

Conclusion: It is postulated that the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases may pose a risk for the development of periodontal diseases.

Keywords: Non-organ specific autoimmune diseases; Periodontal disease; systemic autoimmune disease.

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