DNA-DNA hybridization using total genomic DNA probes may represent a way of differentiating between miscellaneous bacterial species. This was studied with type and reference strains of 20 species in Moraxella, Kingella, and other selected Gram-negative groups. Both radioactive and biotin labelling were employed. Most of the species examined were easily distinguished, such as Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, M.(B.) ovis, M. atlantae, M. phenylpyruvica, M. osloensis, Neisseria elongata, N. meningitidis, Kingella kingae, K. indologenes, K. dentrificans, Oligella urethralis, Eikenella corrodens, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and DF-2. This reflected the extent of the genetic distances between them as a basis for identification by hybridization. There was some clustering in the Moraxella group. Especially the closely related Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata and M. bovis showed strong hybridization affinities. This leads to potential problems in distinguishing these three species from each other by DNA-DNA hybridization with total genomic probes alone.