The association between resting heart rate and type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Korean adults

Heart. 2016 Nov 1;102(21):1757-1762. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-309119. Epub 2016 Jun 16.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Korean adults.

Methods: A total of 5124 participants, who participated in the exercise programme at the National Health Promotion Center between 2007 and 2010 (male=904, female=4220) were analysed in this study. Anthropometrics, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP) and RHR were measured, and blood samples were collected after fasting for at least 12 hours.

Results: To investigate the association between RHR and metabolic parameters, participants were divided into quartiles. Participants in the fourth quartile (RHR >80 beats per minute (bpm) showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic BP and glucose compared with participants in the first quartile (RHR <69 bpm). When logistic regression analyses were performed, participants in the fourth quartile of RHR had 2.76 times (95% CI 2.03 to 3.77; absolute risk (AR): 12.1% (166/1371)) higher odds of type 2 diabetes and 1.27 times (95% CI 1.04 to 1.55; AR: 22.2% (304/1371)) higher odds of hypertension compared with those in the first quartile of RHR (type 2 diabetes AR: 5.3% (71/1346); hypertension AR: 18.9% (254/1346)). Multiple regression analyses showed that both BMI and RHR were significantly associated with glucose and mean arterial pressure.

Conclusions: RHR is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertension independent of age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking and family history of disease. RHR in combination with BMI, and multiple linear regression analyses emphasise the importance of the association of RHR with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Korean adults.

MeSH terms

  • Asian People
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Heart Rate*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose