More parasitic myositis cases in humans in Australia, and the definition of genetic markers for the causative agents as a basis for molecular diagnosis

Infect Genet Evol. 2016 Oct;44:69-75. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.06.026. Epub 2016 Jun 14.


Since 1998, there have been six reported human cases of myositis in Australia, attributable to infection with the nematode Haycocknema perplexum. However, an unequivocal diagnosis of H. perplexum infection and associated disease has been seriously compromised by a lack of molecular markers for this nematode. Here, we report new cases of disseminated myositis in two male patients from the states of Queensland and Tasmania in Australia, respectively; genetically characterize the causative agent from each case; and, also establish a PCR-based sequencing approach as a tool to support the diagnosis of future cases and to underpin epidemiological studies.

Keywords: Australia; Disseminated myositis; Haycocknema perplexum; Human; Nematode.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Australia
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 / genetics
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods
  • Nematoda / genetics*
  • Nematoda / pathogenicity
  • Nematode Infections / etiology
  • Nematode Infections / parasitology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Polymyositis / parasitology*


  • Genetic Markers
  • Cyclooxygenase 1