Traditionally, vaccines have been composed of live attenuated or killed microorganisms. Alternatively, individual protein subunits or other molecular components of the microorganism can serve as the antigen and trigger an antibody response by the immune system. The immune system is a coordinated molecular and cellular response that works in concert to check the spread of infection. In the past decade, there has been much progress on DNA vaccines. DNA vaccination includes using the coding segments of a viral or bacterial genome to generate an immune response. However, the potential advantage of combining an RNA molecule with inorganic nanoparticle delivery should be considered, with the goal to achieve immuno-synergy between the two and to overcome some of the current limitations of DNA vaccines and traditional vaccines. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1415. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1415 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
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