SFE/SFHTA/AFCE primary aldosteronism consensus: Introduction and handbook

Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2016 Jul;77(3):179-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2016.05.001. Epub 2016 Jun 15.


The French Endocrinology Society (SFE) French Hypertension Society (SFHTA) and Francophone Endocrine Surgery Association (AFCE) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary aldosteronism (PA), based on an analysis of the literature by 27 experts in 7 work-groups. PA is suspected in case of hypertension associated with one of the following characteristics: severity, resistance, associated hypokalemia, disproportionate target organ lesions, or adrenal incidentaloma with hypertension or hypokalemia. Diagnosis is founded on aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) measured under standardized conditions. Diagnostic thresholds are expressed according to the measurement units employed. Diagnosis is established for suprathreshold ARR associated with aldosterone concentrations >550pmol/L (200pg/mL) on 2 measurements, and rejected for aldosterone concentration<240pmol/L (90pg/mL) and/or subthreshold ARR. The diagnostic threshold applied is different if certain medication cannot be interrupted. In intermediate situations, dynamic testing is performed. Genetic forms of PA are screened for in young subjects and/or in case of familial history. The patient should be informed of the results expected from medical and surgical treatment of PA before exploration for lateralization is proposed. Lateralization is explored by adrenal vein sampling (AVS), except in patients under 35 years of age with unilateral adenoma on imaging. If PA proves to be lateralized, unilateral adrenalectomy may be performed, with adaptation of medical treatment pre- and postoperatively. If PA is non-lateralized or the patient refuses surgery, spironolactone is administered as first-line treatment, replaced by amiloride, eplerenone or calcium-channel blockers if insufficiently effective or poorly tolerated.

Keywords: Adrenal incidentaloma; Consensus; Hyperaldostéronisme; Hypertension résistante; Hypertension sévère; Hypokalemia; Hypokaliémie; Incidentalome surrénalien; Primary aldosteronism; Resistant hypertension; Severe hypertension.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms
  • Adrenalectomy
  • Adult
  • Aldosterone / blood
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use
  • France
  • Humans
  • Hyperaldosteronism* / diagnosis
  • Hyperaldosteronism* / therapy
  • Hypertension*
  • Hypokalemia
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Renin / blood
  • Spironolactone / therapeutic use


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
  • Spironolactone
  • Aldosterone
  • Renin

Supplementary concepts

  • Adrenal incidentaloma