Kinematics of the ankle/foot complex--Part 2: Pronation and supination

Foot Ankle. 1989 Apr;9(5):248-53. doi: 10.1177/107110078900900508.


The influence of pronation and supination of the foot on the joints of the ankle/foot complex was analyzed three dimensionally by roetgen stereophotogrammetry in eight healthy volunteers. Radiopaque markers were introduced into the tibia, talus, calcaneus, navicular, medial cuneiform, and first metatarsal bones. The subjects stood on a platform that was tilted in 10 degree-steps from 20 degrees of pronation to 20 degrees of supination. Pairs of x-ray exposure were made in each position. Calculation of resulting joint deviations from the neutral position showed that the largest amounts of motion occurred in the talonavicular joint followed by the talocalcaneal joint, in the latter case mainly in supination. The joints proximal and distal to the medial cunriform also participated substantially in the total motion registered. The tibia showed an average of 0.2 degrees of external rotation for each degree of supination of the foot.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ankle Joint / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Pronation
  • Subtalar Joint / physiology
  • Supination
  • Tarsal Joints / physiology*