Hypoxia as a Biomarker and for Personalized Radiation Oncology

Recent Results Cancer Res. 2016:198:123-42. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-49651-0_6.


Tumor hypoxia is a clinically relevant cause of radiation resistance. Direct measurements of tumor oxygenation have been performed predominantly with the Eppendorf histograph and these have defined the reduced prognosis after radiotherapy in poorly oxygenated tumors, especially head-and-neck cancer, cervix cancer and sarcoma. Exogenous markers have been used for immunohistochemical detection of hypoxic tumor areas (pimonidazole) or for positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging (misonidazole). Overexpression of hypoxia-related proteins such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has also been linked to poor prognosis after radiotherapy and such proteins are considered as potential endogenous hypoxia markers.

Keywords: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; Pimonidazole; Tumor hypoxia; Tumor oxygenation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia*
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis
  • Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
  • Osteopontin / blood
  • Precision Medicine / methods*
  • Prognosis
  • Radiation Oncology / methods*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • HIF1A protein, human
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Osteopontin