Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in HIV-infected pregnant women: a multicentre case series

BJOG. 2017 Jul;124(8):1218-1223. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14183. Epub 2016 Jun 20.


Objectives: To assess in pregnant women with HIV the rates of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and the outcomes associated with such procedures.

Design: Observational study. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used.

Setting: University and hospital clinics.

Population: Pregnant women with HIV.

Methods: Temporal trends were analysed by analysis of variance and by the Chi-square test for trend. Quantitative variables were compared by Student's t-test and categorical data by the Chi-square test, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated.

Main outcome measures: Rate of invasive testing, intrauterine death, HIV transmission.

Results: Between 2001 and 2015, among 2065 pregnancies in women with HIV, 113 (5.5%) had invasive tests performed. The procedures were conducted under antiretroviral treatment in 99 cases (87.6%), with a significant increase over time in the proportion of tests performed under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (100% in 2011-2015). Three intrauterine deaths were observed (2.6%), and 14 pregnancies were terminated because of fetal anomalies. Among 96 live newborns, eight had no information available on HIV status. Among the remaining 88 cases with either amniocentesis (n = 75), CVS (n = 12), or both (n = 1), two HIV transmissions occurred (2.3%). No HIV transmission occurred among the women who were on HAART at the time of invasive testing, and none after 2005.

Conclusions: The findings reinforce the assumption that invasive prenatal testing does not increase the risk of HIV vertical transmission among pregnant women under suppressive antiretroviral treatment.

Tweetable abstract: No HIV transmission occurred among women who underwent amniocentesis or CVS under effective anti-HIV regimens.

Keywords: HIV; Amniocentesis; birth defects; chorionic villus sampling; invasive testing; mother-to child HIV transmission; pregnancy; prenatal diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amniocentesis / adverse effects*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Chorionic Villi Sampling / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Fetal Death / etiology
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • Humans
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / statistics & numerical data*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / virology*


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents