Environmental release of engineered nanomaterials from commercial tiles under standardized abrasion conditions

J Hazard Mater. 2017 Jan 15;322(Pt A):276-283. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.05.039. Epub 2016 May 27.


The study presented here focuses on commercial antibacterial tiles whose emissivity of (nano) particles due to abrasion has yet barely been investigated. The tiles have been characterized regarding their surface properties and composition throughout their chain-of-use, i.e. from their state of commercialization until the experimental end-of-service life. In contrast to plane standard tiles, their surfaces form hilly surfaces. In the depressions, titanium dioxide is found at the surface, thus theoretically protected by the hilly areas against abrasion on the tile's surface. Furthermore, a deposition technique has been put in place by producers allowing for coating the before mentioned commercial tiles with titanium dioxide, thus being similar to those commercially available. It consists in depositing titanium dioxide on the surface, latter one allowing fixing the first. This development allows for better understanding the future options for product formulation and thus improvement with respect to particle release. The tests reveal the aerosolization from commercial antibacterial tiles of micronic and submicronic particles in the inhalable region or particles that can subjected to be released in the environment (<10μm). The aersolization of the particles from the coated tiles was found to be significantly higher compared to the non coated tiles.

Keywords: Abrasion; Aerosol emission; Antibacterial; Nanomaterial; TiO(2); Tiles.

MeSH terms

  • Ceramics
  • Nanostructures*
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry*


  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium