Vitamin D Deficiency as a Potential Marker of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Urology. 2016 Nov:97:212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2016.03.070. Epub 2016 Jun 17.


Objective: To determine whether prostatic volumes and urinary flow changes were higher in old Chinese men with vitamin D deficiency than in those without vitamin D deficiency.

Methods: This was an observational case-control study of 224 old Chinese men. End point variables were prostatic volume, measured by transrectal ultrasound, and urinary flow, measured by urinary flowmetry. The International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function score were determined.

Results: Two hundred and thirty-one (71.7%) out of the 322 were defined as vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D deficiency group had a significantly higher prostate volume (42 mL vs 28 mL, P <.001), aldosterone (293 pg/mL vs 220 pg/mL, P < .001), prostate-specific antigen value (3.28 ng/mL vs 2.55 ng/mL, P < .001), and IPSS (4.47 vs 1.98, P < .001), and a significantly lower maximum urinary flow (13.44 mL/s vs 29.98 mL/s, P < .001) vs free of vitamin D deficiency group. Binary logistic regression analysis showed a strong association between the presence of vitamin D deficiency and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) after adjusting for age, International Prostate Symptom Score, urination time, urinary volume, abdominal obesity, aldosterone, glucose, insulin, parathyroid hormone, and C-reactive protein (odds ratio 5.22, 95% confidence interval 1.96-12.76, P = .001).

Conclusion: There is a relationship between the presence of vitamin D deficiency and prostate growth-associated urinary symptoms, likely attributable to their pathophysiological similarity. This study suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be a marker of BPH. Thus, it may be used as a future therapeutic target in patients with BPH. Further studies were necessary to confirm this association.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aldosterone / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • China
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Size
  • Prostate / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostate / pathology*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / physiopathology*
  • ROC Curve
  • Ultrasonography
  • Urodynamics
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamin D
  • Aldosterone
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen