Why Most Clinical Research Is Not Useful

PLoS Med. 2016 Jun 21;13(6):e1002049. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002049. eCollection 2016 Jun.


John Ioannidis argues that problem base, context placement, information gain, pragmatism, patient centeredness, value for money, feasibility, and transparency define useful clinical research. He suggests most clinical research is not useful and reform is overdue.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research / classification
  • Biomedical Research / organization & administration
  • Biomedical Research / standards*
  • Humans

Grants and funding

The Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS) is funded by a grant from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation (http://www.arnoldfoundation.org). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.