Objective: Although the first report on cesarean myomectomy (CM) was a century ago, the management of a myomectomy during a cesarean section (CS) remains controversial. The objective of this study is to provide the latest data on this topic regarding the techniques and complications of CM.
Methods: The authors consulted the most important scientific databases investigating the indications and contraindications for CM, the operational techniques, benefits and complications.
Results: CM provides the benefits of two surgeries in one laparotomy, avoiding the risks of repeated anesthesia and relaparotomy. Nevertheless, in some patients, CM may be associated with increased morbidity and, in such cases, an interval myomectomy might be a safer option. Myomas compromising fetal extraction and uterine incision and/or suturing should be preferably enucleated during CS. CM is generally considered relatively safe in cases of anterior wall myomas, subserous and pedunculated myomas, particularly if a myomectomy is feasible without additional hysterotomy. Multiple myomas, deep intramural, fundal and cornual myomas and posterior uterine wall myomas are associated with more surgical complications during CM.
Conclusions: With increasing reports in favor of CM, the risk-benefit ratio should be still evaluated with randomized controlled trials, in order to achieve more data on CM.
Keywords: Cesarean myomectomy; cesarean section; complication; myoma; technique.