A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched (from inception to November 25, 2015) to identify RCTs evaluating the effect of magnesium on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used to compensate for the heterogeneity of studies. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression assessments were conducted using standard methods. The impact of magnesium supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, and HOMA-IR index was assessed in 22, 14, 12 and 10 treatment arms, respectively. A significant effect of magnesium supplementation was observed on HOMA-IR index (WMD: -0.67, 95% CI: -1.20, -0.14, p=0.013) but not on plasma glucose (WMD: -0.20mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.45, 0.05, p=0.119), HbA1c (WMD: 0.018mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.13, p=0.756), and insulin (WMD: -2.22mmol/L, 95% CI: -9.62, 5.17, p=0.556). A subgroup analysis comparing magnesium supplementation durations of <4 months versus ≥4 months, exhibited a significant difference for fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.001) in favor of the latter subgroup. Magnesium supplementation for ≥4 months significantly improves the HOMA-IR index and fasting glucose, in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The present findings suggest that magnesium may be a beneficial supplement in glucose metabolic disorders.
Keywords: Glucose control; Insulin sensitivity; Magnesium; Meta-analysis.
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