Introduction Among conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients, carbamylated serum albumin (C-Alb) correlates with urea and amino acid deficiencies and is associated with mortality. We postulated that reduction of C-Alb by intensive HD may correlate with improvements in protein metabolism and cardiac function. Methods One-year observational study of in-center nocturnal extended hemodialysis (EHD) patients and CHD control subjects. Thirty-three patients receiving 4-hour CHD who converted to 8-hour EHD were enrolled, along with 20 controls on CHD. Serum C-Alb, biochemistries, and cardiac MRI parameters were measured before and after 12 months of EHD. Findings EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb (average EHD change -3.20 mmol/mol [95% CI -4.23, -2.17] compared to +0.21 [95% CI -1.11, 1.54] change in CHD controls, P < 0.001). EHD was also associated with increases in average essential amino acids (in standardized units) compared to CHD (+0.38 [0.08, 0.68 95%CI]) vs. -0.12 [-0.50, 0.27, 95% CI], P = 0.047). Subjects who reduced C-Alb more than 25% were found to have reduced left ventricular mass, increased urea reduction ratio, and increased serum albumin compared to nonresponders, and % change in C-Alb significantly correlated with % change in left ventricular mass. Discussion EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb as compared to CHD, and reduction of C-Alb by EHD correlates with reduction of urea. Additional studies are needed to test whether reduction of C-Alb by EHD also correlates with improved clinical outcomes.
Keywords: Carbamylated albumin; carbamylation; cardiac hypertrophy; extended duration hemodialysis; nocturnal hemodialysis; uremia.
© 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.