Evaluation of allowable time and histopathological changes in warm ischemia of the uterus in cynomolgus monkey as a model for uterus transplantation

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016 Sep;95(9):991-8. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12943.


Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine the allowable warm ischemic time and pathological changes due to ischemia and reperfusion injury in the uterus of the cynomolgus monkey as a model for uterus transplantation.

Material and methods: Six female cynomolgus monkeys were used in the study. The uterus was resected from the vaginal canal and connected through the bilateral ovarian and uterine arteries and veins only. One animal was used as a control. In the other five animals, the bilateral uterine and ovarian vessels were clamped for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, respectively. Biopsy of the smooth muscle tissue of corpus uteri was performed after each ischemic time and after subsequent reperfusion for 3 h. Biopsy samples were observed by light and electron microscopy. Menstruation recovery was monitored.

Results: There were no particular findings in both light and electron microscopy after ischemia for up to 2 h and after subsequent reperfusion. There were no marked changes after ischemia for 4 h, but dilated nuclear pores and rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling were found after reperfusion. These changes also occurred, along with mitochondrial swelling and cristae loss after ischemia for 8 h, and plasma membrane loss, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation were found after reperfusion. Periodical menstruation restarted in all animals with ischemia up to 4 h, but the animal with ischemia for 8 h had amenorrhea and uterine atrophy.

Conclusions: The uterus of the cynomolgus monkey tolerates warm ischemia for up to 4 h.

Keywords: Cynomolgus monkey; ischemia and reperfusion injury; uterine factor infertility; uterus transplantation; warm ischemia.

MeSH terms

  • Amenorrhea / etiology
  • Animals
  • Atrophy / etiology
  • Biopsy
  • Cell Nucleus / pathology
  • Chromatin / pathology
  • Cytoplasm / pathology
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / pathology
  • Female
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Menstruation
  • Microscopy
  • Mitochondria, Muscle / pathology
  • Models, Animal
  • Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • Reperfusion
  • Reperfusion Injury / pathology*
  • Uterus / pathology
  • Uterus / transplantation*
  • Warm Ischemia*


  • Chromatin