Protective effect of Tremella fuciformis Berk extract on LPS-induced acute inflammation via inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways

Food Funct. 2016 Jul 13;7(7):3263-72. doi: 10.1039/c6fo00540c.


Tremella fuciformis Berk (TFB) has long been used as a traditional medicine in Asia. Although TFB exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, the mechanisms of action responsible have remained unknown. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of Tremella fuciformis Berk extract (TFE) in RAW 264.7 cells and observed significantly suppressed LPS-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. TFE also suppressed LPS-induced IKK, IkB, and p65 phosphorylation, as well as LPS-induced translocation of p65 from the cytosol. Additionally, TFE inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs. In an acute inflammation study, oral administration of TFE significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production and iNOS and COX-2 expression. The major bioactive compounds from TFB extract were identified as gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and coumaric acid. Among these compounds, protocatechuic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, these results suggest that TFE is a promising anti-inflammatory agent that suppresses iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Basidiomycota / chemistry*
  • Biological Products / pharmacology
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Gentisates / pharmacology
  • Hydroxybenzoates / pharmacology
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Parabens / pharmacology
  • Phosphorylation
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene / pharmacology
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biological Products
  • Cytokines
  • Gentisates
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Parabens
  • Protective Agents
  • protocatechuic acid
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid