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. 2016 Aug;116(4):621-31.
doi: 10.1017/S0007114516000623. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

The Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status With Infant Birth Outcomes, Postnatal Growth and Adiposity in the First 2 Years of Life in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Cohort Study

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The Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status With Infant Birth Outcomes, Postnatal Growth and Adiposity in the First 2 Years of Life in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Cohort Study

Yi Lin Ong et al. Br J Nutr. .
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Abstract

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) and 26·5 % were insufficient (50-75 nmol/l). After adjustment for potential confounders and multiple testing, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin D status and any of the birth outcomes - small for gestational age (OR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·79) and pre-term birth (OR 1·16; 95 % CI 0·64, 2·11) - growth outcomes - weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally - and adiposity outcomes - BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of <30·0 nmol/l) in our population.

Keywords: 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Adiposity outcomes; BMIZ BMI-for-age z-scores; Birth outcomes; Growth outcomes; Infant anthropometric measures; LAZ length-for-age z-scores; Maternal vitamin D; Pregnancy; SGA small for gestational age; WAZ weight-for-age z-scores.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest

P.D.G., K.M.G., and Y.S.C. have received reimbursement for speaking at conferences sponsored by companies selling nutritional products. These authors are part of an academic consortium that has received research funding from Abbot Nutrition, Nestec, and Danone. None of the other authors report any potential conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flowchart of study participants with data on birth outcomes and anthropometric measurements at various time-points from birth to 24 months

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